Disinfection is the treatment of surfaces/equipment using physical or chemical means. The process reduces the amount of surface contaminating microorganisms which lead to illness in people. These surfaces include but not limited to:
- Soap dispensers
- Door handles
- Bathroom toilet seats
- Counter tops
- Light switches
The selection of disinfectants is determined by the amount of microorganisms, the compatibility of the chemical disinfectants and the surface size. Surface size determine the type of equipment to be used and also most suitable disinfection method. In the past experiences, disinfection practices seemed to be unnecessary for places which are not health care facilities. Furthermore, in such facilities, disinfection was done to prevent further transmission of viruses/diseases from one patient to the other. With new COVID-19 virus, patients linked to uncomplicated and mild illness can transmit COVID-19 virus to close contacts within closed settings. This has led to places outside health care settings being more vulnerable to COVID-19 transmission. Furthermore, it has become necessary to disinfect places which are not health care facilities such as public transport, business settings, markets, homes, etc.
PROPERTIES OF AN IDEAL DISINFECTANT
- Should kill microorganisms fast – Rapid Kill
- Not irritating to user
- Should not corrode instruments and metallic surfaces
- Easy to use
- It should be stable upon storage and should not undergo any chemical change.
There are different types of effective disinfection methods which include the traditional and modern nanotechnology method. In the recent time the ability of Nano spray technology has been highlighted as that it attaches to air atoms thereby killing even viruses/bacteria lurking in the air.
METHODS OF DISINFECTION
It is applying chemical disinfectants to surface areas as mist or fog. Fogging is achieved using a purpose built system with a strategically placed nozzle to produce mist or fog. The difference in the fogging system exist in the chemical product used. Most of the disinfection chemicals contain sterilox hypochlorous acid, tartaric acid solution, liquid peracetic acid, alkyl amine/peracetic acid, the 7.5% of the hydrogen peroxide, and 0.2% of the chlorine dioxide solutions. Fogging enables difficult-to-reach places to be thoroughly disinfected. Under typical conditions, fogging is carried out for a minimum of 15–30min to enable the fog to disperse and the chemical action to occur. After fogging, an additional period of 45–60min is required to allow the droplets to settle out of the air and onto the surfaces.
2.Ultraviolet Light Disinfection
UltraViolet Light has been designed to enable disinfection to be carried out on surfaces where a dry chemical-free disinfection method is required. This method has been considered effective from the point of view of sterilization results. UV-L is a disinfection method that uses short-wavelength ultraviolet (ultraviolet C or UV-C) light to kill or inactivate microorganism. If you want to use the Ultra Violet Light, the process should be done without the presence of people because UV has a negative effect on the human skin and eyes.
3.The standard method
This is when the application of a disinfectant is carried out by sponging, wiping, or mopping. However, this method is more efficient on much smaller particle sizes and surface coverage. Additionally, pre-cleaning in the presence of soil contamination is important so as to increase the effectiveness of the distribution and efficacy of the product. The standard methods are more effective in the distribution on the surface than the area treatment.
Virus or bacteria disinfection is widely influenced by the type, size, and properties of surfaces. Disinfection is considered as the major factor contributing to the dissipation of an epidemic. Self-disinfection surfaces have been recently developed through chemical and physical modifications of the surface in order to kill microorganisms.
If you know any other disinfection methods or chemicals/natural remedies. Please leave your comment below.